- The administrative office systems (AOS) is responsible for
planning, organizing, operating, and controlling all phases of the information cycle in order to meet the main systems objective
to provide appropriate information and service for managements
use in making decisions.
- The concept of system in AOS is defined in a more specific, work-related manner.
- System refers to a set of related elements that are linked together according to a plan for achieving
a specific objective.
- Each system depends on the proper coordination and operation of all
its elements in order to achieve its assigned goals.
KEY ELEMENTS IN AOS
- The key elements in the AOS function (in systems terms) are:
- Role of personnel in managing, supervising, and doing the
- Physical resources such as office furniture, machines,
- Data must be available for processing into information
using efficient methods for completing the work
- Media, such as forms and related records for storing,
retrieving, and using data, must be provided.
- Controls such as policies, rules, objectives, etc. regulate
the above elements to ensure that the system achieves its goals.
- All systems depend completely on adequate financial support
to ensure their effective operations.
- systems responsible for accomplishing specialized functions for the
- A procedure is a planned sequence of operations for handling
recurring transactions uniformly and consistently.
- A method represents a manual, mechanical, or automated means
by which each procedural step is performed.
OBJECTIVES OF AOS
- Furnish the best information, in the right format,
to the right people at an appropriate time, at the least cost, and in the right amount so improved
decision making results.
- Eliminate unnecessary work or the duplication of work.
- Design systems that ensure safer, less fatiguing work.
- Automate repetitive, routine tasks where possible when automatic equipment will do the work more quickly, more
accurately, more economically, and more reliably. Such a system should be flexible as possible to meet present and future
- Establish an efficient, uniform procedure to follow for each
- Determine responsibility for satisfactory work performance.
- Provide adequate training for employees and supervisors to ensure top-level work performance.
- Gain the acceptance and support of all systems users.
BASIC SYSTEMS CONCEPT
The general systems model is used to represent a broad explanation
of the system (or any of its subsystems) to which more concrete details can be added as needed.
The principal phases of a system (open) are:
a. Input - the first phase of any system in which data, labor
and other energy, materials, equipment, and money are received from another system. Examples: raw materials, skills
needed by a word processing operator
b. Transformation Process changes or transforms input into
Eg.: sorting, storing, retrieving, and computing.
c. Output is the ultimate goal of a system, that which results
after the input has been changed in some way during the second phase - transformation process to a desired form. Eg:
correspondence, reports, accounting statements, budgets.
d. Feedback is the regulating force that compares the
systems output with the standards of performance set for the system. Eg. Customer evaluation of service.
e. Control is the systems phase that dictates what
can and cannot be done in each of the other phases of the AOS. Controls are placed over the input, transformation process,
output and feedback phases.Eg. Plans, procedures, programs, and standards of employee performance.
Systems Structure (or systems hierarchy) is somewhat related to the structure appearing on the organization chart.
It evolves as the form of organization for providing a wide variety of systems services to the firm.
a. Total System-Subsystems Relationship - Total system
is made up of many major systems. Each of these major systems is, in turn, divided into a number of subsystems.
- When all of these systems are combined into a total system, they form a company-wide information network.
All three levels of system total, major, and subsystem have the same general makeup and follow the same operating
b. Information Systems - The information function
operates through a system that controls the many activities making up the information cycle. The major system is an
information system and total set is the management information system. At the heart of such as a system
is the computer, which performs many of the functions of the information cycle.
c. Database - A database is a central master
file containing company-wide information from the major systems of the firm. collection of information from such
areas as accounting, engineering, marketing, human resources, production, and R & D in one large computerized library.
It also provides organization-wide access to the master file via computer terminals. Information is captured and stored
only once. Total file space is reduced since duplicate files can be eliminated. Updating of files
is facilitated as transactions come into the system at one point only. Database uses large computers or small
networked computers to provide additional storage power. Departments or individuals are reluctant to release
certain information to a centralized unit because they fear unauthorized access to the files or accidental destruction
or removal of the stored information. Passwords that limit access to data have lessened this fear.
The Human System in the Office
- People serve as the main control element in AOS.
- People and their needs must receive first and last consideration
in any systems study.
- Effective participation and harmonious work relationships that exist between employees and the systems staff
lead to success of AOS programs.
- Human system refers to expectations, behavior, and performance of the people responsible for the system.
- The office manager and the office staff represent the key input
to any office job; this group has the greatest impact on the output of the office.
- Individual and group inputs work together to solve problems of AOS.